IN VITRO TRIAL OF CURCUMIN IN COMPARISON TO METRONIDAZOLE FOR TREATMENT OF VAGINAL TRICHOMONIASIS
Hala Said Salem1, Mona Abd El- Fattah Ahmed2, Faten El Brikan3
Departments of Medical Parasitology, Faculties of Medicine, Al-Azhar University1, Ain Shams University2, KAAU3
Trichomonas vaginalis, a parasitic protozoan, is the etiologic agent of trichomoniasis, a sexually transmitted disease (STD) of worldwide importance. Trichomoniasis is the most common nonviral STD, and it is associated with many perinatal complications, male and female genitourinary tract infections, and an increased incidence of HIV transmission. Current treatment protocols involving metronidazole show on rise resistance; drive the need for alternative chemotherapy. Aim of the work: to look for an alternative herbal treatment for Trichomonas vaginalis instead of metronidazole. Curcumin is selected to be tested because of its reported antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antiparasitic effect. Methods: different culture media for growth were tested to detect the suitable one to maintain the growth of trophozoites for long periods without interruption of culture. Different concentrations of curcumin 200, 400 and 800µg/ml were incubated in vitro with cultivated trophozoites. Metronidazole was used in 12.5, 25 and 50µg/ml concentration under the same conditions to compare its effect on cultivated trophozoites. Motility, growth inhibition and morphological appearance were recorded in the different concentrations of both treatments. Morphological changes were studied by scanning electron microscope. Results: curcumin and metronidazole in all concentrations showed decreased motility of treated trophozoites, in the time curcumin showed 100% growth inhibition at 800µg/ml after 24 h. of drug application, metronidazole showed 100% growth inhibition at 50µg/ml after 48 hours of drug incubation with the trophozoites. Meanwhile curcumin at 400µg/ml and 200µg/ml showed 100% growth inhibition after 72 h., metronidazole showed 85.7% and 67.1% growth inhibition of Trichomonas after 72 h. at 25 and 12.5 µg/ml respectively. Scanning electron microscopy showed dramatic morphological destruction of trophozoites with losing flagellae after 24 hours incubation with curcumin at concentration 200µg/ml while metronidazole at the parallel concentration 12.5 µg/ml and even at 25 µg/ml showed little change of trophozoite architecture. Conclusion: curcumin could be a promising drug for treatment of Trichomonas vaginalis and it needs more investigations to test its effect in vivo.