HISTOPATHOLOGICAL CHANGES IN THE RAT'S KIDNEY FOLLOWING EXPOSURE TO ARTEMETHER
MOHAMED ATIF SAID AHMED *, MOHAMED SAMIR AHMED ZAKI**, REFAAT ALI EID***, , MAHMOUD A. ISMAIL****
Departments of Anatomy*, Histology**, Forensic medicine**** Faculty of Medicine and Faculty of Sciences ***, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt. Faculty of Medicine, King Khaled University, Abha, KSA
Artemether is a new drug characterized by its novel structure and unique antimalaria action. It consistently has antischistosomal properties and it has been also shown to have significant anticancer and antitumor activities. The effect of artemether on the structure of kidney has not been reported so far. The present study was designed to investigate the histopathological effects of artemether on rat's kidney. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of ten (10) adult male albino rats of the Wister strain; weighing 200 ± 21 grams were used, they were randomly divided into two groups (five rats each). The first group served as a control (treated with corn oil which used as a solvent for artemether). While rats of the second group were exposed to oral intake of 2 cc artemether (200 mg/kg) for three days consecutively. One day after the last dose, the rats were sacrificed and the kidneys obtained were processed for light and electron microscopic analysis.RESULTS: Rats treated with artemether showed histopathological changes in the form of widening of tubular lumen, vacuolation and degeneration of the lining epithelium with disturbance of the contour. Fibrosis in the renal corpuscle with shrunken of capillaries were noticed. Some renal corpuscles are completely destructed and replaced by inflammatory cells. More than 20% of the tubules and 15 % of the glomerulli were affected with mild severity. Ultrastructure showed the presence of red blood corpuscles and mitochondria in the urinary space as a signs of congestion and degeneration. Glomerular basement membrane showing irregularity. Endothelial cells in the capsular space showing hypertrophy with enlargement of the nucleus and increased density of its heterochromatin. Glomerular hump-like subepithelial electron-dense deposits were also noticed. Capillary lumens were narrowed by markedly swollen endothelial cells. Proximal tubules show necrotic epithelial cells with cytoplasmic inclusion bodies and loss of cytoplasmic organelle. There is damaged and swelling mitochondria. Kidney interstitium showing the presence of red blood cells and increased of infiltration of inflammatory cells. Herniations in luminal border of the cells in the distal convoluted tubule were also noticed.CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggesting that, intake of artemether causes nephrotoxicity in rats. Further investigation to study the mechanism of artemether toxicity and the reversibility/irreversibility of the pathological effects is recommended in future studies.