PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF GINGER EXTRACT AGAINST MATERNAL AND FETAL HEPATOTOXICITY AND NEPHROTOXICITY INDUCED BY PRENATAL CADMIUM ADMINISTRATION IN RATS
Magdy M.O. El-Fark
Department of Anatomy, Suez Canal University, EGYPT
Aim of the work: This study was designed in rats to investigate the toxic effects of prenatal cadmium (Cd) administration on pregnancy outcome plus the histopathological changes of maternal and fetal livers and kidneys. Also, the potential protective effect of ginger co-administration on these changes was addressed.
Background: Cadmium (Cd) is one of the most toxic environmental pollutants, which has a cumulative accumulation in the blood, kidneys, and liver tissues as well as in the reproductive organs, including the placenta, testes, and ovaries. Limited data was available about the developmental effects of prenatal Cd exposure as well as on the internal organs of the mothers and fetuses. While ginger appears to be a safe and effective alternative to the drug treatment, there has no investigation about its protective effect on the maternal and fetal adverse effects after Cd exposure during pregnancy.
Material and Methods: The present study conducted in the period from June 2014-November 2014, pregnant rats were divided into 4 groups (8 rats/each), control group, received distilled water, 2nd group treated with 8.8 mg of CdCl2/kg b.wt, 3rd group treated with 250 mg of ginger/kg b.wt and 4th group treated with 250 mg of ginger/kg b.wt and 8.8 mg of CdCl2/kg b.wt. Daily body weight of pregnant rats was recorded from GD1-GD20, where they were sacrificed. Maternal liver, kidneys and gravid uteri were weighted. Foetuses and their placentas were extracted and weighted. Fetal growth parameters were measured. Samples from both maternal and fetal livers and kidneys were processed for histopathological examination.
Results: Administration of Cd to pregnant rats showed reduced maternal weight gain, reduced absolute organ weights, reduced fetal growth parameters and placental weights together with altered histopathological appearance of both maternal and fetal livers and kidneys. Co-administration of ginger during pregnancy revealed a significant improvement of these toxic changes in maternal and fetal rats.
Conclusion: Cd exposure during pregnancy manifested many adverse effects on both the mothers and foetuses and supplementation of ginger could be beneficial against these toxic effects due to its antioxidant activity.