ASSESSMENT OF HEPATIC RECOVERY FOLLOWING CISPLATIN ADMINISTRATION IN ADULT ALBINO RAT HISTOLOGICAL AND IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL STUDY
Fayza Abdel Raouf Abdel Gawad, Ehab A. A. Elshaarawy, Ahmed F. Al Domairy*, Enas Ahmed Mohamed and Mohamed Ossman*
Departments of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University and *October 6 University
Background: Cisplatin is one of the most commonly used compounds for the treatment of a wide spectrum of human malignancies; testicular, ovarian, bladder, cervical, head and neck and lung cancers (Chu, 2012). Its usefulness is limited by its hepatotoxicity which sometimes requires discontinuation of the treatment.
Aim of the work: The aim of the present work was to study the adverse effect of Cisplatin on the histological structure of the liver in adult male albino rat, and to assess the possible hepatic recovery.
Material and methods: forty adult male albino rats were divided into 4 groups. Group I and II (control groups) contained 20 rats, whereas each of the other groups contained 10 rats. These experimental groups were cisplatin group (group III) which received single cisplatin injection (7 mg/kg IP), cisplatin recovery group (group IV) which received single cisplatin injection of the same dose. Liver specimens were subjected to hematoxylin and eosin, Masson trichrome, silver staining as well as immunohistochemical Caspase-3 examination and measurements utilizing image analysis technique.
Results: The histological results revealed the injurious effect of cisplatin on the liver. The groups treated with cisplatin alone showed degeneration featured by cytoplasmic vacuolization, ghost figures, karyolysis, pyknosis, mononuclear cellular infiltration, hypochromatic nuclei, multiple nucleoli, intranuclear vacuolization, portal congestion and edema and necrotic cells. The lesions affected mainly the pericentral and midzonal areas. The central vein diameter, the stromal framework disruption and apoptotic cells increased in the cisplatin groups. The recovery groups showed statistically higher values as regards the area percent of fibrous tissue.
Conclusion: The present work revealed the damaging effects of cisplatin on the liver as regards general histological picture, stromal framework integrity, central vein diameter and apoptosis. The liver did not show evident recovery but showed increased fibrosis.