EFFECT OF ESTRADIOL ON THE PANCREAS OF ADULT ALBINO RAT: A HISTOLOGICAL AND ULTRASTRUCTURAL STUDY
Gamal Hosny Mohamed, Mohamed Hafez Shaaban
Department of Anatomy and Embryology, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University
Background: Estradiol, a female sex hormone, has important biological functions in a woman's body. The pancreas, often considered a non-classical Estradiol organ, is known to be functionally regulated by Estradiol, but little is known about how Estradiol actions are regulated in this organ.
Aim of the Work: The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of Estradiol on the exocrine and endocrine structure of pancreas.
Material and Methods: The present study was carried out on forty adult albino rats. Their average weight was 200 grams. They were divided into two equal groups. Group I (control group): divided into two subgroups; Subgroup I (a): formed of 10 male rats received, 0.5 ml corn oil subcutaneously administered once weekly for 12 weeks. Subgroup I (b): formed of 10 female rats received, 0.5 ml corn oil subcutaneously administered once weekly for 12 weeks. Group II (Estradiol group): divided into two subgroups; Subgroup II (a): formed of 10 male rats received, 50 µg Estradiol/kg/ body weight in 0.5 ml corn oil subcutaneously administered once weekly for 12 weeks. Subgroup II (b): formed of 10 female rats received, 50 µg Estradiol/kg/ body weight in 0.5 ml corn oil subcutaneously administered once weekly for 12 weeks. At the end of the experiment, the rats from each group were sacrificed and pancreatic specimens were taken from the tail of pancreas. The specimens were fixed in a buffered glutraldehyde 2.5% solution. Semi-thin sections of 1 μm thick were obtained, stained with 1% toluidine blue and examined by light microscope and ultrathin sections were examined by electron microscope.
Results: Estradiol had adverse effects on pancreas. The acinar cells showed marked decrease in their zymogen granules and some showed degranulation at their apices. Abundant cytoplasmic vacuoles were observed. The rough endoplasmic reticulum was decreased swollen and vacuolated. The mitochondria were few and degenerated with no transverse cristae. The nucleus was deformed irregular and dark. In islet cells, the beta cell showed marked decrease in its secretory granules, the mitochondria were observed as numerous and elongated. The endoplasmic reticulum appeared as few scattered stacks. The alpha cells showed mild structural changes and appeared with their normal secretory granules and endoplasmic reticulum. The pathological changes mentioned before in the pancreas under the effect of Estradiol were more marked in female rats than male rats.
Conclusion: Estradiol has adverse effects on the pancreas and sudden onset of diabetes mellitus or acute pancreatitis should always be a concern in management of Estradiol treated patients especially female patient.