PROTECTIVE ROLE OF VITAMIN C VERSUS NARINGENIN AGAINST THE NEPHROTOXIC EFFECT OF CADMIUM ON THE RENAL CORTEX OF ADULT MALE ALBINO RAT: HISTOLOGICAL AND IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL STUDY
Enas Ahmed Mohamed
Anatomy department, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University
Background: cadmium is a toxic trace element of worldwide concern as it is present in food, air and water. In addition, it has deleterious effects on the kidney. Vitamin C is a well-known antioxidant. It has free-radical scavenging activity. Naringenin is a plant flavonoid found in citrus fruits. It is an antioxidant and a free radical scavenger.
Aim: the current study was designed to compare the possible protective role of vitamin C versus Naringenin administration against the nephrotoxic effect of Cadmium on the renal cortex of adult male albino rat. Kidney functions, histological and immunohistochemical studies were done.
Materials and Method: Twenty-seven adult male albino rats were divided into four groups. Group I (control group), group II (Cadmium-treated group), group III (Cadmium plus vitamin C-treated group) and group IV (Cadmium plus Naringenin- treated group). Biochemical, histological (using H&E, Masson´s trichrome stains and PAS reaction) and immunohistochemical (using PCNA) studies were performed. Morphometric measurements of the mean optical density of PAS reaction , mean area% of collagen fibers and mean area %of PCNA immunoreactivity were done followed by statistical analysis.
Results: increased levels of blood urea, creatinine and uric acid were observed in the Cadmium-treated group as compared to their similarities in the control group. A significance decrease of these levels was observed in the cadmium+ Naringenin-treated group as compared to the cadmium + vitamin C-treated group. Dilated Bowman´s space, atrophic splitted glomeruli, congestion of glomerular capillaries, vacuolations and pyknotic nuclei of the tubular cells, intratubular debris, hyaline casts, interstitial hemorrhage were observed in Cadmium-treated rats. In addition, a significant increase of the mean optical density of PAS reaction in basement membrane of the renal tubules and of the renal corpuscles, a significant decrease in the optical density of PAS reaction in the brush border of the tubules, a significant increase in the collagen fibers and decrease of the proliferating cells were observed in this group. An obvious improvement has been observed in the renal cortex in rats' groups III and IV as compared to their similarities in group II. The improvement was more evident in group III.
Conclusion: Cadmium has deleterious effects on the renal cortex which could be prevented by co-administration of either vitamin C or Naringenin. Naringenin showed a better protective role against the harmful effects of Cadmium as compared to the protective effect of vitamin C.