EFFECT OF SODIUM FLUORIDE ON THE LIVER OF ADULT MALE ALBINO RAT AND THE POSSIBLE PROTECTIVE ROLE OF VITAMIN C: LIGHT AND ELECTRON MICROSCOPIC STUDY
Fayza Abdel Raouf, Medhat M. Morsy and Amany Elsayed Mohamed
Anatomy and Embryology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University
Background: The excessive fluoride ingestion over a prolonged period adversely influence many organs as the lung and heart, in addition to the well-known effect of fluoride on bone and teeth.Aim of work: The aim of this work was to study the hepatotoxic effect of sodium fluoride and to evaluate the possible protective role of vitamin C, as an antioxidant, against it.
Material and Methods: This work was carried on forty adult male albino rats, weighing 200-250gm, to study the adverse effect of sodium fluoride on the liver and the protective role of vitamin C. The animals were divided into four equal groups. Group A (Control group): the animals of this group received a daily intraperitoneal injection of one ml sterile distilled water. Group B: the animals of this group received vitamin C (40 mg/Kg) daily to evaluate its effect on the liver. Group C: the animals of this group received sodium fluoride (10 mg/Kg) daily for three successive weeks. Group D: the animals of this group received sodium fluoride (10 mg /kg) and vitamin C (40 mg/Kg) daily for three successive weeks. Sodium fluoride was given by intraperitoneal injection and vitamin C was given by a gastric tube. The rats of all groups were sacrificed after three weeks from the beginning of the experiment.
Results: The present work demonstrated that the administration of sodium fluoride alone in group C produced variable degrees of histological changes in the liver of rats. These changes appeared as loss of hepatic architecture and massive hemorrhage. In addition congestion and dilatation of the hepatic sinusoids and central vein of hepatic lobules were found. Inflammatory cellular infiltration was seen with marked increase in the number of Kupffer cells. Hepatocytes showed extensive vacuolation of their cytoplasm while their nuclei showed: irregular wall, karyorrhexis or pyknosis. The electron microscopic study showed small sized nucleus, decreased cytoplasmic organelles, rarified cytoplasm and some lipid droplet were seen in the cytoplasm. The rough endoplasmic reticulum was scattered and seen distorted and dilated with vacuolated mitochondria. The calculated statistical analysis of the image analysis in rats of this group showed a highly significant increase in the number of Kupffer cells and in the deposition of collagen in the connective tissue adjoining the central vein and a highly significant decrease of glycogen in hepatocytes. The co-administration of vitamin C in group D reduced the harmful effect of sodium fluoride on the liver.