THE HAZARDS OF WEIGHT LOSS HERBAL SUPPLEMENT (HYDROXYCUT) ON THE LIVER AND KIDNEY OF THE ADULT FEMALE ALBINO RATHISTOLOGICAL AND IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICL STUDY
Mona Mohamed Ali Attia and Emad Salah Mishriki
Anatomy and embryology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University
Background and purpose: Obesity has become an increasingly important public health problem. The use of herbal supplements for weight loss has become increasingly popular. The goal of this study was to explore the hazards of weight loss herbal supplement (Hydroxycut) on the histological structure of the liver and kidney of the adult female albino rat. Material& Methods: Eighteen healthy adult female albino rats were used in this study and divided into two groups; control group (6 rats) and experimental group (12 rats). The experimental animals received twice daily dose of Hydroxycut for one month. At the end of the experiment, the animals were sacrificed and blood samples were taken for analysis of the liver and kidney enzymes. The liver and kidney specimens were processed and stained with Haematoxylin & Eosin, PAS stains and Immunohistochemical stain (Caspase-3) and studied with light microscope. Results: Ingestion of Hydroxycut revealed an elevation of serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and blood urea nitrogen. However, this herbal supplement resulted in reduction of high-density lipoprotein, total cholesterol and triglycerides levels. Liver sections showed disturbed hepatic architecture after ingestion of Hydroxycut, where there were pseudoglandular formation and congested blood vessels with marked inflammatory cellular infiltration around them. Centrilobular hepatocytes were swollen with narrowing of hepatic sinusoids, whereas, the peripheral hepatocytes revealed large vacuolations of the cytoplasm or replaced by large fat vesicles. Marked nuclear pleomorphism was noticed, where some cells had large nuclei with two prominent nucleoli. Other cells revealed pyknotic nuclei, demonstrated ghost nuclei, or exhibited complete absence of nuclei. Decreased PAS-positive reaction was noticed in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes in the experimental group than the control group. Kidney sections revealed degenerated and shrunken glomeruli with widening of capsular spaces and thickened bowman's capsule. The renal tubules were dilated with degeneration of the epithelial lining and exfoliation into the tubular lumen. Higher number of Caspase-3-positive apoptotic cells in the hepatocytes, in the lining wall of the central vein, in renal tubules and glomeruli were noticed after ingestion of Hydroxycut. Conclusion: The present study concluded that the herbal supplement (Hydroxycut) medication revealed biochemical, histological and immunohistochemical changes in the liver and the kidney of female albino rats. Finally, this research recommends taking weight loss herbal supplements with caution due to their serious adverse effects to health.