EVALUATION OF THE THERAPEUTIC EFFICACY OF MIRAZID AND PROPOLIS IN EXPERIMENTAL CANINE HETETROPHYIASIS: A PARASITOLOGICAL AND HISTOPATHOLOGICAL STUDY
Nashaat E. Nassef, Maimona E. Bakr, Wafaa M. El-Kersh,Manal A. El-Melegy, Amany I. Ammar and Magda A. Mansour*
Departments of Parasitology and *Histology, Faculty of Medicine, Menoufiya University
The present work was carried out to study histochemical and histopathological lesions that occur in heterophyiasis on different organs of the expermintaly infected puppies with encysted metacercariae. Also to evaluate the therapeutic effect of mirazid (Myrrh or commiphora molmol [MZ]) and propolis (a natural bee product) compared to praziquantel (PZQ) in treatment of puppies expermintally infected with heterophyids. This study was conducted on 25 puppies divided into five groups, 5 puppies each. Every puppy was infected with fish muscle inoculum containing approximately 500 encysted metacercariae. Group I: (infected non-treated positive control group), they were sacrificed at the 2nd and 3rd week after infection for histopathological examination. Group II: (infected, PZQ treated), infected with encysted metacercariae 2 weeks before treatment with PZQ. Group III: (infected, MZ treated) infected with encysted metacercariae 2 weeks before treatment with MZ. Group IV: (infected, propolis treated), infected with encysted metacercariae 2 weeks before treatment with propolis. Group V: (non-infected non-treated negative control group). The results of counting the eggs per gram in stool (EPG) and worm recovery rate (WRR) were done to evaluate the efficacy of tested drugs. Livers, intestines, lungs, lymph nodes and kidneys were examined for histopathological changes using Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) stains; also Masson's trichrome stain was used. Histochemical changes that occur in intestines and liver sections were performed by Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS) stain. Also scanning electron microscopical examination (SEM) for heterophid worms isolated from small intestines after treatment was performed. The results revealed that heterophyid infection caused significant changes in the all examined organs. They were detected in spite of absence of heterophid ova or adult in the organs. The results revealed that puppies treated with PZQ showed complete disappearance of eggs from stool on the 3rd day after treatment. The mean ± SD of the WRR was significantly lower in Group I than in Groups II and III. Drug efficacy in PZQ, MZ and propolis was 100%, 30% and 23.6% respectively. The mean ± SD of total leucocytic count ×103 cells/μl, neutrophilic and lymphocytic count ×103 cell /μl were significantly higher in group I than group V. It was significantly lower in groups II, III and IV than group I. The mean ± SD of ALT, AST, BUN and creatinine were significantly higher in group I than V. Histochemical examination revealed marked restoration of glycogen in the brush borders of the absorptive columnar cells and serum biochemical values regressed near normal in group II. It was also significantly lower in the mean value of ALT, AST, BUN and creatinine in groups II and III than group I. Both MZ and propolis caused pronounced tegumental changes in heterophyid worms by SEM examination.